On December 7, 2020, a bill of complaint was made against Georgia, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania to challenge their administration of the 2020 US presidential election. This document was selected as the basis of the herein short study. In this document’s nature of action section, two actions are relevant to this study being actions 10 and 11. Action 10 stipulates that Biden’s probability of winning the popular vote in the four defendant states independently, given Trump’s lead in the polls as of 3 am on November 4, 2020, is less than 10–13 %. The odds of winning all 4 states…


Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) has numerous applications, including protein analysis, comparative genomics, functional prediction of sequences, and generation of phylogenetic trees [1]. Several strategies have been developed to conduct MSA. These computational strategies generally have three approaches: exact, progressive, and iterative. The exact approach is, in essence, a generalization of pairwise sequence alignment (PSA) dynamic programming methods that can provide optimal solutions [2]–[4]. However, MSA becomes increasingly complex with a higher number, length, and diversity of sequences. Hence, exact strategies are limited to solving MSA with few sequences [5]. Progressive MSA (P-MSA) are greedy-heuristic algorithms built gradually according to a…

Ahmed I.

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